Daymord - Mordant Dyes

Mordant dyes are those dyes which require a mordant in their application and which upon combination with the mordant deposit insoluble color on the substrate, e.g., dyes with metal chelating groups. Like the name suggests these dyes require a mordant. Mordants are substances of organic or inorganic origin which combine with the coloring matter and are used to fix the same in the production of the color. For the purpose of this class, such materials as oils and sulfonated oils, soaps, fats and higher acids, are not generally considered as mordants, but as coming within the scope of “assistants” in dyeing.

The mordant substances include such acids as tannic acid, sumac, gall nuts, bark extracts, oleic and stearic acids, and Turkey red oil; and metallic substances such as various combinations or soluble salts of chromium, aluminum, iron, copper, and tin. The latter, the metallic mordants, are more used than the acid mordants. Mordant improves the fastness of the dye on the fibre such as water, light and perspiration fastness. The choice of mordant is very important as different mordants can change the final colour significantly. Most natural dyes are mordant dyes and there is therefore a large literature base describing dyeing techniques. Dyes are generally defined along the lines of being coloured, aromatic compounds that can ionise. Although this definition infers that ionic interaction with oppositely charged tissue constituents is the norm, there are exceptions. Some dyes require the presence of a metal to properly develop their colour or staining selectivity. These are termed mordant dyes. The Colour Index uses this as a classification and naming system. Each dye is named according to the pattern: mordant + base colour + number.

These dyes are thereby specifically identified as dyes of the stated colour, and whose primary staining mechanism requires the presence of metal atoms. Note that this is a functional and colour classification. It contains no chemical information neither does it imply that dyes with similar names but unique numbers are in any way related. It should also be noted that the classification refers to the primary mechanism of staining. Other mechanisms may also be possible. The most commonly used mordant dyes have hydroxyl and carboxyl groups and are negatively charged, i.e. anionic. It is convenient to view these as a specialised subgroup of acid dyes. Some other mordant dyes may possess amino groups, and are cationic overall. Despite this, they must still have hydroxyl or carboxyl groups, since lake formation requires it.

Mordant dyes can usually stain by ionic interaction in the same way as other ionisable dyes. The colour is often pale, sometimes so pale that the results have no value. It is often noted that when a mordant dye forms a lake with a metal, there is a strong colour change. This is because metals have low energy atoms. The incorporation of these low energy atoms into the delocalised electron system of the dye causes a bathochromic shift in the absorption. It is this delocalised electron system which is fundamentally responsible for colour in dyes. Since different metal atoms have differing energy levels, the colour of the lakes may also differ.

The most commonly used mordant dye is undoubtedly hematein (natural black 1), whose status as a natural product supercedes its mode of dyeing, apparently. Others are eriochrome cyanine R (mordant blue 3) and celestine blue B (mordant blue 14), both used as substitutes for alum hematoxylin but with a ferric salt as the mordant. Alizarin red S (mordant red 3) is valuable for the demonstration of calcium, particularly in embryo skeletons.

Product Name Colour C.I. Name C.I.No. Cas No.
Daymord Yellow G   Mordant Yellow 1   584-42-9
Daymord Yellow H   Mordant Yellow 10   6054-99-5
Daymord Yellow MAC   Mordant Yellow 12   6470-98-0
Daymord Yellow RSW   Mordant Yellow 20   7/4/6471
Daymord orange R   Mordant orange 1 14030 2243-76-7
Daymord orange 3R   Mordant orange 2 14040 6408-37-3
Daymord orange GR   Mordant orange 6 26520 3564-27-0
Daymord orange RT   Mordant orange 10   6406-37-7
Daymord orange 37   Mordant orange 37 18730 6441-98-1
Daymord Red WR   Mordant Red 3   130-22-3
Daymord Bordeaux BR trade   Mordant Red 5   3564-26-9
Daymord Red B   Mordant Red 7   3618-63-1
Daymord Red BSW Mordant Red 9   1839-22-2
Daymord Red 11 Mordant Red 11   72-48-0
Daymord Brill Red BR   Mordant Red 15   6359-29-1
Daymord Red 5G   Mordant Red 19   1934-24-3
Daymord Blue 2BT   Mordant Blue 1   1796-92-5
Daymord Blue S2R   Mordant Blue 9 14899 3624-68-8
Daymord Blue B   Mordant Blue 13 16680 1058-92-0
Daymord Green 17   Mordant Green 17 17225 6564-28-1
Daymord Green 28   Mordant Green 28 17220 6222-44-2
Daymord Black A   Mordant Black 1 15710 3618-58-4
Daymord Black 2BP   Mordant Black 1   3618-58-4
Daymord Black BC   Mordant Black 3   3564-14-5
Daymord Black PV   Mordant Black 9 16500 2052-25-7
Daymord Black TEC   Mordant Black 11 14645 1787-61-7
Daymord Black Grey B   Mordant Black 13   1324-21-6
Daymord Black 15   Mordant Black 15   3179-84-8
Daymord Black G2BS   Mordant Black 17 15705 2538-85-4
Daymord Brown EBN   Mordant Brown 1 20110 3564-15-6
Daymord Brown 13   Mordant Brown 13 13225 6054-80-4
Daymord Brown 15   Mordant Brown 15 14870 8006-50-4
Daymord Brown TV   Mordant Brown 33 13250 3618-62-0
Daymord Brown 35   Mordant Brown 35 14765 5858-48-0
Daymord Brown MB   Mordant Brown 48   6232-53-7
Daymord Brown 69   Mordant Brown 69 20120 8/8/5850
Daymord Brown79   Mordant Brown79 - 3567-69-9

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